In recent years, China's exports of furniture to Europe and the United States continued to grow. In the first half of 2012, China's exports of furniture and parts reached US$22.46 billion, a year-on-year increase of 26.1. Among them, the baby furniture industry, including baby cribs, baby dining chairs and other furniture, has become one of the most promising industries in China. The quality of sleep products is essential, otherwise it can easily cause accidents and injuries to infants and young children. In the United States in 2007, the number of injuries to children under 5 years of age caused by sleep products was about 62,000; between 2005 and 2007, there were 17,000 accidents among children aged 0-4 in the EU due to the quality of children's beds. Pieces. According to the Inj ury Database of the European Commission (Euro-IDB), annual crib-related accidents cause more child deaths than other childcare products. At present, there are about 50 baby crib production and sales companies in Shanghai. The scale is different and the quality of the products is uneven. There are very few large-scale enterprises integrating the design, research and development, production and sales of cribs.
Reports on the unqualified quality of cribs are not uncommon. The Shanghai Consumer Protection Committee commissioned the Shanghai Institute of Quality Supervision and Inspection Technology, based on the relevant standards for materials, structures, bedspreads, side panels, bedsides, frames, stability, and According to the requirements of formaldehyde emission and other projects, in 2010, 16 samples of children's beds in the circulation field were tested. Seven of them did not meet the standards, and many of them were well-known brands. The main reasons include: 1) The product design does not meet the requirements. If the gap between the pavement and the bed is too large, or the gap between the beds is not satisfactory, the gap between the side plates and the holes or parts on the bed head may cause the head, hands and feet of the infant to be stuck Injury; 2) Raw materials, finishing materials, etc. do not meet the requirements. For example, the content of lead in metal materials and the amount of formaldehyde released from artificial boards exceed the standard, and the paint contains heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and mercury.
According to the Consumer Product Safety Committee (CPSC), defective cribs have been an important cause of injury and death in infants and young children. Infant asphyxia caused by the separation of the sidebar of the crib and the death of infants and young children caused by inferior or defective parts have increased year by year. Since 2007, more than 11 million unqualified cribs have been recalled. In order to prevent similar tragedies and protect the safety of infants and young children, North American and EU countries have revised the standards related to cribs. Most of the baby products in the United States and Canada are imported from abroad. For this reason, the most stringent monitoring and regular spot checks on the production, import and terminal sales of baby products,among which the inspection of the import link has become the top priority.Products that do not meet the testing standards will be banned from advertising, sales and imports.
1.2 American Crib Standard
Overall, the US crib standard system is the most sound, the update speed is also faster, and the requirements are becoming more stringent. The latest published and implemented mandatory standard 16 CFR Part 1217 is based on the voluntary standard ASTM F 1821 - O9 "Children's Bed Safety Regulations", not only for baby beds, but also for children's beds.
The standard highlights the following situations that may occur in infants and young children: falling into the structure of the bed, falling between guardrails and stringers, falling into the mattress support system, and failure of components in the mattress support system and guardrails to cause damage to infants and young children. Exploring the possibility that the corner post extension may catch children's clothing. In order to prevent infants from falling from the bed, the US CPSC recommends that the height of the guardrail be at least 5 inches above the top surface of the mattress; when performing the structural integrity test of the guardrail, the applied force increases from 177.9 N to 222.4N; for a permanently fixed rail, slat and bed head structure for the shaft/slat static test, the applied force is 355.8 N; the pinch warning and suffocation warning are required to be split into two separate labels. In addition to meeting the criteria listed in Table 1, crib products must also comply with l6 CFR Part 1303 “Containment of lead paint and specific lead paint consumer goods”; 16 CFR 1500.48 "Toys for children under 8 years of age or Technical requirements for the determination of sharp points in similar products“; 16 CFR 1500.49 "Technical requirements for the determination of sharp metal or glass edges in toys or similar products for children under 8 years of age"; 16 CFR 1500.50 "Simulation test methods and abuse of toys and other goods used by children"; 16 CFR Part 1501" for children under 3 years of age using the identification of toys and other items that may cause suffocation, breathing or swallowing due to small parts". CPSC also issued an accreditation requirement for third-party conformity assessment agencies for cribs, announcing that from October 20, 2011, all cribs must pass the testing of third-party agencies before they can be placed on the US market.
1.3 EU Crib Standard
The EU has comprehensive standards and regulations for cribs, baby cradle and related products in the sleeping environment of infants.In 2009, EU member states adopted safety standards for sleeping supplies for infants and young children such as mattresses, quilts and sleeping bags, and authorized EU standardization bodies to monitor the implementation of new standards. The new standard requires safety in designing and producing mattresses according to the size of the baby bed, preventing the mattress from being easily folded, causing the baby to be stuck and suffocated; requiring baby sleeping bags, quilts, crib bumpers , can not be equipped with ropes, rope loops, and small, detachable parts or sharp edges and corners to prevent the baby from being entangled or causing other injuries; in the product manual, clearly indicate the potential safety hazards of the product, and products All safety tests specified by the standard must be passed. In terms of stability, it is required to strictly control key steps such as production processes and final product safety testing to ensure product quality stability. In terms of hygiene, it is emphasized that in the product manual, the product must be marked as containing no toxic or hazardous substances. The EU standards have different requirements for the structure of the bed for different ranges of cribs. For example, BS EN 1130-1:1997, for cribs with internal length ≤900 mm, BS EN 716-2008 is mainly for household cots with internal lengths of 900-1400 mm, both standards are required in normal use. The edges, protrusions and chamfers that the baby can reach, without burrs or sharp edges. For casters, BSEN 1130-1:1997 requirements, 2 lockable casters and 2 pillars, or 4 lockable casters; BS EN 716-2008 requires 2 or more casters, and at least 2 Support points, or at least 4 casters, at least 2 of which can be locked. For assembly holes, when BS EN 1130-1:1997 requires inspection, the 7 mm hole gauge shall not pass the measured assembly hole; and BS EN 716-2008 specifies that the diameter of the assembly hole shall not be between 7 and 12 mm. Except for the hole depth <i0 mm.
1.4 Canadian Crib Standard
Canadian Standard SOR/2010-261, in addition to the definition of cribs and baby cradle, also includes the following amendments:
1) In terms of structural safety, the crib is required to have no protruding parts that can be stepped on and climbed to prevent the baby from falling due to climbing. At the same time, the safety requirements of the crib corner column are proposed, which is consistent with the United States; 2) the height of the side The minimum requirement is 230 mm, which harmonizes the side height and performance requirements of the portable crib and the standard crib; 3) the total lead content limit value is reduced to 9O mg/kg; 4) the warnings and declarations are required to be included in the Safety warning statements for bedside yarns, movable side rails and replaceable parts to effectively raise parents' vigilance and prevent children from suffocation and falls; 5) Revise the flammability standards of textiles, the new standard adopts Canadian general standards Committee (Canadian General Standards Board, CGSB) standard CAN/CGSB 4.2 No. 27.5 20O8 ((Textile Fire Test Method 45 Angle Test; 1 Second Ignition Impact Test), replacing the original American Society for Testing and Materials Standard ASTM D 1230-6 1 "The standard method of test 29 • V01.26 No .5"); 6) Manufacturers or the importer must have at least 3 years of qualification to sell, promote and test related products.
1.5 Japanese Crib Standard
The Japanese standard JIS S 1103:2008 was revised with reference to ISO 7175-1997. This standard applies to wooden beds for infants from 0 to 2 years old, 700 mm wide and 1 200 mm long, but does not include mattresses, mosquito nets and other accessories and beds that can be used as structures for cradle, hammock, chair, stroller, etc. . The standard stipulates the size, materials, test methods, precautions and instructions for the crib, and revised the requirements for the use of materials and formaldehyde emission, and proposed the corresponding relationship with ISO 7175-1997.
1.6 China Crib Standard
Chinese standards QB 2453.1-1999 and QB/T 2453.2-1999 are equivalent to ISO 7175.1-1997 and ISO 7175.2-1997 respectively. At the same time, the production of crib products must comply with the national standard GB 18584-2001~ indoor decorative materials limited edition of harmful materials in wood furniture and GB/T 3324-2008 -general technical conditions for wood furniture. The National Furniture Standardization Technical Committee stated that in the sample testing, the quality problems of the crib mainly include: the height of the fence and the gap not up to standard, formaldehyde emission exceeded, soluble heavy metals exceeded the standard.China's latest GB 28007-2011~General Technical Conditions for Children's Furniture is the first time that children's furniture is suitable for children aged 3 to 14 years. The standard includes 9 parts of product shape, size, toxic and hazardous substances, safety and warning signs. In addition to the detailed provisions on the sharp corners, protruding parts, holes, gap size and stability of children's furniture, the standards control the content of dozens of toxic and harmful substances such as formaldehyde emission and soluble heavy metals.
- Countermeasures for technical barriers to crib exports
The United States and Canada are the main markets for the export of baby products in China, and the “Joint Recall” has become an important means for the US CPSC and Health Canada to jointly dispose of substandard products. From the category of jointly recalled products, children's products, especially cribs, strollers and other products are the key targets of joint recall; children's products are easy to cause suffocation and other hazards are the main reasons for recall, while design defects and product structure defects, It is the root cause of most products being recalled. In 2008-2011, the US CPSC announced a voluntary recall of Chinese-made cribs due to product quality problems. The total number of cribs recalled reached nearly one million. Therefore, it is a problem that enterprises, governments, and third-party testing organizations need to jointly explore and solve in response to the ever-developing technical barriers for cribs and ensure the continuous improvement of product quality and export business. Enterprises should pay attention to and study the latest regulations and standards of cribs in exporting countries, and adjust production processes to respond positively. From the perspective of national standards, the safety and environmental protection of cribs are increasingly being taken seriously. Therefore, enterprises should abandon the past practice of paying too much attention to the appearance of products. In view of the current quality problems in Chinese cribs, take measures in the following areas:
1) Design aspects
Removes the climbing footing that allows the child to climb out of the crib and fall to the ground without sharp angles and clearly define the diameter and depth of the holes, openings and gaps, ensuring the structural dimensions of the edges, points, corners, etc. of the crib, and the side The strength and stability of the board meet the requirements of the importing country. For example, the bed edge fence should be cylindrical as much as possible, and the distance between the two fences should be ≤6 cml. The bed rails or the raised carvings on the bed body will not catch the baby's clothes; all the surfaces of the crib must be painted to prevent cracking. Protective layer; the mattress should be closely attached to the bed frame, and the sides of the mattress should be within 2 cm from both sides of the guardrail. It is important to note that the latest mandatory crib standards in the United States do not permit the production or sale of traditional pull-down sidebar cribs, and the use of stoppers and repair kits; the use of wood of the strength required to avoid breakage; The crib must have a loosening device; the bed
The pad support must be durable; the safety test is more stringent.
2) Process aspects
Due to the increasingly stringent safety requirements of cribs in foreign standards, companies should focus on the most basic specifications, structures and materials of the products, rather than additional functions, and improve the production process according to the standards of different exporting countries. The details are as follows: 1 rigorous testing of raw materials, including wood, plastic, metal, paint, etc.; 2 to determine the scope and function of the product, in the production process, to ensure that the structure and specifications of the product meet the requirements of the exporting country, such as guardrail height, aperture , chamfers and protrusions; 3 for the processing details of the product excellence, such as hardware accessories using anti-slip screws, in-line design, guardrail assembly anti-bite strips, the use of silent casters, notes using environmentally friendly fragile paper, etc.; Other functions are developed on the premise that the product meets the requirements of safety and environmental protection standards. For example, the activity extension board can be used to lengthen the crib; the vent hole is provided on the bed board to increase the comfort of the bed board; the sensor is used to sense the sleeping environment, the baby crib is automatically swayed, or the music sleep function is played.
3) Production aspects
The production was strictly in accordance with the quality control system. The operators should be trained after training and assessment. The materials selected for drying, sterilization and pest control should be advanced and equipped with advanced equipment and production techniques. Production; to ensure that the ropes, small parts, moving parts of the instructions and warnings, fully reflect the characteristics of the use of the crib.
4) Product inspection
Ensure that all indicators meet the standard requirements, and analyze the test results to continuously improve the production process; when exporting, please importers to clearly check all the technical regulations and standards on which the products are based, so as to avoid ambiguity due to requirements, resulting in non-conformity of users. Claims, product recalls, and even customs issues caused by the request. At the same time, the government, industry associations and other relevant departments should also vigorously carry out risk assessment, timely release risk warning information, guide enterprises to actively respond, help enterprises to take effective measures to avoid risks, and reduce the return notification by the importing country occur.
The formulation and publication of relevant standards is an important guarantee for enterprises to improve and standardize the production process and market of cribs. In the face of the increasingly severe technical barriers for cribs, it is necessary to strengthen the study of foreign advanced standards and regulations, and to develop national standards for crib products. Companies with technical capabilities should actively participate in the development of crib standards, improve the quality of crib products, and propose solutions to the technical barriers faced by crib export companies.
The safety of baby products has always been the focus of attention in all countries of the world. European and American countries, Australia and other countries and regions have established various regulations and standards, and strictly enforce the safety of baby products on the market. Infants and young children's products produced in China account for a high proportion in the world market. Therefore, relevant enterprises must always pay attention to and actively respond to the development/revision of crib regulations and standards in various countries, strengthen the study of standards, and strictly follow mandatory standards. Production, strengthen product testing and risk control, thereby improving the quality of Chinese crib products and promoting the growth of corporate export business.
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